Summer 2002

Johannesburg Preparations Reveal Deep Transatlantic Divergences

Director, Environment and Human Settlements Division, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Preparations for the Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development have revealed sharp policy differences between the European Union and the

United States, many of which re§ect long standing philosophical divisions between the two sides of the Atlantic.

These differences emerged clearly as members of the UN Economic Commission for Europe laid the groundwork for a regional ministerial meeting to consider the Johannesburg agenda that was held in Geneva, Switzerland, last September. As a member of the UNECE secretariat, I had a ringside seat as the two sides laid out their con§icting economic, social and environmental arguments.


How Companies Can Achieve Environmental Leadership

Vice President, Corporate Environmental Affairs and Product Safety, IBM Corporation

For most businesses, traditional environmental management largely involves complying with laws and regulations and responding capably to crises. In other words, it means doing what is required by others (and doing it well), but not necessarily doing more. That kind of approach is essential, but it is also limited, because simple environmental management plans can often be tactical and reactive, instead of strategic and preventive.

Environmental leadership goes well beyond this. It involves developing strategic plans that are integrated into basic business operations. It means open dialogue, constructive work with interested external constituents, and creating positive changes that others can accept and follow.


Common NATO Standards Will Be Vital in Future Conflicts

Director, NATO Standardization Agency

Interoperability is probably the most important issue for militaries of today, and recent operations, such as those in Kosovo and Afghanistan, show that it is continually growing in importance. But our efforts to achieve interoperability in NATO do not attract attention, either from political or from military leaders, and are often criticized as inadequate.

Addressing the issue in Brussels recently, General Joseph W. Ralston, the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe, gave a most welcome answer to the critics. Rather than stress our deficiencies, he said, one should look at all the elements that bring the allies together - all the standardization agreements and joint manuals and textbooks to support cultural and human interoperability through doctrine, tactics, techniques and procedures. Because of that common foundation, he said, we share the ways in which we think and operate. It is the basis for everything we do, and it is more important than for all to have the same weapons and equipment. He is absolutely correct.


With the ABM Treaty Gone, Europe Warms to Missile Defense

Deputy Director, the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies, The Heritage Foundation

Once upon a time, the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty (ABM) was widely considered in Europe to be the "cornerstone of arms control" and U.S. plans for national missile defense (NMD) to be an example of America's worst isolationist instincts. In fact, that time was less than a year ago.

Today, however, the ABM is no more, the United States having withdrawn from the treaty on June 13 in preparation for the development and testing of a national missile shield.


Despite Differences, Transatlantic Cooperation Against Terror Will Continue

Washington Bureau Chief, International Herald Tribune

With the fighting in Afghanistan largely over, some of the sense of urgency in the war against terrorism has begun to ebb, allowing earlier frictions between the United States and Europe to re-emerge. As U.S. cooperation has lessened on a host of international issues, from land mines to the new International Criminal Court, the question arises how well Transatlantic cooperation in the war on terror will endure.

The answer would seem to depend partly on U.S. skill at twisting European arms, but perhaps more relevantly on the extent to which Europeans see it as in their own interests to continue offering such cooperation.